Financial statements > Group financial statements > Notes to the Group Financial Statements

notes to the group financial statements
for the year ended 31 December 2015

1.

ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

1.1

Basis of preparation

   

The group financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), IFRIC interpretations, SAICA Financial Reporting guides, the requirements of the Companies Act, no 71 of 2008, as amended, and the Listing Requirements of the JSE Limited.

The group financial statements are prepared using the historical cost convention, as modified by the revaluation of financial assets and financial liabilities (including derivative instruments) at fair value through profit or loss, and are prepared on the going concern basis.

The group financial statements are prepared using accrual accounting whereby the effects of transactions and other events are recognised when they occur rather than when the cash is received.

Assets and liabilities and income and expenses are not offset unless specifically permitted by an accounting standard.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount reported only when a current legally enforceable right to offset the amounts exists and the intention is either to settle on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied in preparing and presenting financial statements. Changes in accounting policies resulting from the initial application of a standard or an interpretation are accounted for in accordance with the transitional provisions in the accounting standard. If no such guidance is given, they are applied retrospectively.

Changes in accounting estimates resulting from new information or new developments are recognised in the income statement in the period they occur.

Prior period errors are retrospectively restated unless it is impracticable to do so, in which case they are applied prospectively.

   

1.2

New Accounting Standards

   

Standards, amendments and interpretations in issue and effective

Amendment to IAS 19, 'Employee benefits', aimed at simplifying the accounting for contributions that are independent of the number of years of employee service, for example, employee contributions that are calculated according to a fixed percentage of salary, has been adopted by the group for the first time for the financial year beginning on or after 1 January 2015.

Standards, amendments and interpretations in issue not yet effective

The following new and revised accounting standards, amendments and interpretations that will impact on the financial statements of the group, or may affect the accounting for future transactions or arrangements, have not yet become effective and have not been adopted prior to their commencement:

  • Amendment to IAS 1, 'Presentation of financial statements' (effective 1 January 2016)
  • Amendment to IAS 7, 'Cash flow statements' (effective 1 January 2017)
  • Amendment to IAS 12, 'Income taxes' (effective 1 January 2017)
  • Amendment to IAS 16, 'Property, plant and equipment', and IAS 38, 'Intangible assets' (effective 1 January 2016)
  • Amendment to IAS 27, 'Separate financial statements' (effective 1 January 2016)
  • IFRS 9, 'Financial Instruments' (effective 1 January 2018)
  • Amendment to IFRS 10, 'Consolidated financial statements' and IAS 28, 'Investments in associates and joint ventures' (effective 1 January 2016)
  • Amendment to IFRS 11, 'Joint arrangements' (effective 1 January 2016)
  • IFRS 15, 'Revenue from contracts with customers' (effective 1 January 2018)
  • IFRS 16, 'Leases' (effective 1 January 2019).

The group intends to comply with these standards from the effective dates. Adoption of these standards by the group in future reporting periods is not expected to have a significant impact on the financial statements of the group or company, apart from the application of IFRS 9 and IFRS 16, the impact of which will be assessed.

     

1.3

Judgements made by management

   

There were no material judgements made by management, in the application of accounting policies, that could have had a significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements other than those dealt within note 1.37.

     

1.4

Recognition of assets and liabilities

   

Assets and liabilities are recognised when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with them will flow to and from the group respectively, and when their costs or fair values can be measured reliably.

Financial instruments are recognised when the company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets are recognised based on trade dates.

     

1.5

Derecognition of assets and liabilities

   

Financial assets or parts thereof are derecognised when the contractual rights to receive the cash flows have expired or been transferred and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership or control have passed.

All other assets are derecognised on disposal or when the substantial risks and rewards associated with ownership have passed to another party, or when no future economic benefits are expected from their use.

Financial liabilities are derecognised when the relevant obligation has either been discharged, cancelled or has expired.

     

1.6

Foreign currencies

   

The functional currency of each entity within the group is determined based on the currency of the primary economic environment in which that entity operates. Transactions in currencies other than the entity's functional currency are recognised at the exchange rates ruling on the dates of the transactions, i.e. dates on which the transactions first qualify for recognition. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of these transactions and from translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the income statement in the period in which they arise, except when deferred in equity as qualifying cash flow hedges. The company and group's functional and presentation currency respectively is South African Rand.

Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of foreign exchange contracts (except cash flow hedges when deferred in equity) as well as gains and losses arising on translation are recognised in the income statement in the period in which they arise.

     

1.7

Hedge accounting

   

Hedge accounting is adopted when all the IFRS requirements are fulfilled, which includes documenting at the inception of the transaction the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objectives and strategy for undertaking various hedging transactions, which is detailed in note 35. In addition, the group documents the assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of the hedge effectiveness.

A fair value hedge is a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognised asset, liability or firm commitment. The gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk in a fair value hedge is included in the carrying amount of the hedged item and recognised in the income statement. The gain or loss on the hedged instrument is also recognised in the income statement.

A cash flow hedge is the hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that is attributable to a particular risk associated with an asset or a liability that could affect profit or loss or a highly probable forecast transaction that could affect profit or loss.
The portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge that is determined to be effective is recognised directly in other comprehensive income, whilst the ineffective portion is recognised in the income statement.

If an effective hedge of a forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a financial asset or financial liability,
the associated gains or losses previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity are recognised in the income statement in the same period in which the asset or liability affects the income statement.

If a hedge results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, any associated gains or losses previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity are included in the initial measurement of the acquisition cost or other carrying amount of the asset.

Hedge accounting is discontinued on a prospective basis when the hedge no longer meets the hedge accounting criteria (including when it becomes ineffective), when the hedge instrument is sold, terminated, exercised or when, the forecast transaction in respect of cash flow hedges is no longer expected to occur or when the hedge designation is revoked.

The hedging reserve accumulates all movement in the fair value of financial instruments designated as hedges of transactions that have yet to be recognised on the balance sheet. When the underlying transaction is recognised, the related accumulated hedging reserve is released to the income statement, and reflected in revenue (refer to note 18 of the group financial statements).

     

1.8

Post balance sheet events

   

Recognised amounts in the financial statements are adjusted to reflect events arising after the balance sheet date that provide evidence of conditions that existed at the balance sheet date.

     

1.9

Comparative figures

   

Comparative figures are restated in the event of a change in accounting policy, prior period error or change in presentation or classification of items in the financial statements.

     

1.10

Segment reporting

   

The group determines and reports operating segments based on internal information that is provided to the Hulamin Executive Committee, which is the group's most senior operating decision-making body. It is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments.

     

1.11

Basis of consolidation

   

The group financial statements incorporate the assets, liabilities, income, expenses and cash flows of entities, typically subsidiaries, controlled by the group (including structured entities). Control exists where the group is exposed, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the subsidiary and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the subsidiary. The results of entities controlled by the group acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the group income statement from the date the group exercises control, or up until the point it ceases to exercise control. Inter-company transactions, balances and unrealised gains and losses on transactions between group entities are eliminated on consolidation. Accounting policies of subsidiaries are changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the group.

The group treats transactions with non-controlling interests as transactions with equity holders of the group. Gains or losses arising from these transactions are recorded in equity.

     

1.12

Associates

   

Associates are all entities over which the group has significant influence but not control. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies. Associates are accounted for using the equity method from the date on which they become an associate. The use of the equity method is discontinued from the date that the group ceases to have significant influence over an associate.

The carrying amount of the investment in associate is tested for impairment by comparing the recoverable amount with its carrying amount. Any impairment loss recognised forms part of the carrying amount of the investment.

     

1.13

Joint ventures

   

The group accounts for joint ventures using the equity method of accounting from the date when joint control first exists to when it ceases to exist where the investment is carried at cost plus post-acquisition changes in the group's share of net assets of the joint venture, less any provision for impairment.

     

1.14

Business combinations

   

The cost of an acquisition, which is within the scope of IFRS 3 – Business Combinations, is measured as the fair value of the assets given, equity instruments issued and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of exchange. Acquisition related costs are expensed as incurred.

Any excess of the cost over the group's share in the fair value of the assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired is recognised as goodwill and any excess of the fair value of the assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost is recognised in the income statement.

The difference between the consideration given and the aggregate book value of the assets and liabilities (as of the date of the transaction) of the acquired entity are recorded as an adjustment to retained earnings.

     

ASSETS

 

1.15

Property, plant and equipment

   

Items of property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised. The costs of the day-to-day servicing of property, plant and equipment are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.

Depreciation is calculated so as to write off the depreciable amount of the assets, other than land, over their estimated useful lives, using a method that reflects the pattern in which the asset's future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. Depreciation is charged from the dates the assets are available for use. The property, plant and equipment acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the useful life of the asset and the lease term, unless ownership is expected to transfer, in which case this will be over the useful life.

Where the useful lives of significant parts of an item are different from the item itself, these parts are depreciated over their useful lives. The methods of depreciation, useful lives and residual values are reviewed annually.

     

1.16

Intangible assets

   

The group's only intangible asset is computer software. Acquired computer software licences are capitalised on the basis of
the costs incurred to acquire and bring to use the specific software. These costs are amortised over their estimated useful lives.

Costs associated with maintaining computer software programmes are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs that are directly attributable to the design and testing of identifiable and unique software products controlled by the group are recognised as intangible assets when all the asset recognition criteria are met. Directly attributable costs that are capitalised as part of the software product comprise mainly software development employee costs.

Computer software costs recognised as assets are amortised over their estimated useful lives of three to fifteen years. Research costs are expensed when incurred.

     

1.17

Impairment of non-financial assets

   

At each reporting date, the carrying amount of the tangible and intangible assets are assessed to determine whether there is any indication that those assets may have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss. Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs is estimated. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less cost of disposal and value in use. Value in use is estimated based on discounted future cash flows expected to be derived from an asset or cash-generating unit.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, its carrying amount is reduced to the higher of its recoverable amount and zero. Impairment losses are recognised in the income statement. Subsequent to the recognition of an impairment loss, the depreciation or amortisation charge for the asset is adjusted to allocate its remaining carrying value, less any residual value, over its remaining useful life.

If an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount but limited to the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised in the income statement.

     

1.18

Leasing

   

A finance lease is a lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an asset. Title may or may not eventually be transferred. An operating lease is a lease other than a finance lease.

Leases are classified as finance leases or operating leases at the inception of the lease.

Finance leases are recognised as assets and liabilities at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the future minimum lease payments at the date of acquisition. Minimum lease payments are payments over the lease term, excluding contingent rent, costs for services and taxes to be paid by and reimbursed to the lessor including any amounts guaranteed by the company or by a party related to the company.

Finance costs represent the difference between the total leasing commitments and the fair value of the assets acquired. Finance costs are charged to the income statement over the term of the lease at interest rates applicable to the lease on the remaining balance of the obligations.

Rentals payable under operating leases are recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease or another basis if more representative of the time pattern of the user's benefit.

     

1.19

Inventories

   

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated cost of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.

The specific identification basis is used to arrive at the cost of items that are not interchangeable. The weighted average method, in the case of consumables, and the first-in-first-out method, in the case of all other inventories, is used to arrive at the cost of items that are interchangeable.

     

1.20

Financial assets

   

Financial assets are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs. However, transaction costs in respect of financial assets classified as fair value through profit or loss are expensed.

Financial assets classified as fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value with gains or losses being recognised in profit or loss. Fair value, for this purpose, is market value if listed or a value arrived at by using appropriate valuation models if unlisted.

Loans and receivables, which include trade receivables, are measured at amortised cost less impairment losses, which are recognised in the income statement.

Financial assets carried at amortised cost are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. In particular, the trade receivables provision is established where there is objective evidence that the group will not collect all amounts due according to the original terms of receivables. Evidence of impairment may include indications that the debtors are experiencing significant financial difficulty.

The fair value of derivative assets is calculated as the difference between the contracted value and the value to maturity at
the balance sheet date. The value to maturity of forward foreign exchange contracts is determined using quoted forward exchange rates at the balance sheet date. The value to maturity of commodity futures is determined by reference to quoted prices at the balance sheet date. The value to maturity of interest rate swaps is determined by reference to quoted swap rates
at the balance sheet date.

IFRS 13 requires disclosure of fair value measurements by level of the following fair value measurement hierarchy:

  • Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (level 1)
  • Inputs other than quoted prices included within level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (that is, as prices) or indirectly (that is, derived from prices) (level 2)
  • Inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (that is, unobservable inputs) (level 3).
     

1.21

Non-current assets (or disposal groups) held for sale

   

Non-current assets (or disposal groups) are classified as assets held for sale when their carrying amount is to be recovered principally through a sale transaction and a sale is considered highly probable. Upon initial classification as held for sale, non-current assets and disposal groups are recognised at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell.

     

1.22

Cash and cash equivalents

   

Cash and cash equivalents are carried in the balance sheet at face value. Cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand and deposits held with banks with original maturities of three months or less. In the balance sheet and cash flow statement bank overdrafts are included in borrowings.

     

1.23

Contingent assets and liabilities

   

Contingent assets and liabilities are not recognised, although contingent liabilities are disclosed.

     

EQUITY AND LIABILITIES

 

1.24

Equity

   

Transactions relating to the acquisition and sale of shares in the company, together with their associated incremental direct costs, are accounted for in equity. Other transactions are accounted for directly in equity only if permitted by the standards.

     

1.25

Consolidated shares

   

Consolidated shares represent the A and B class ordinary shares issued to the BEE investor company and the ESOP Trust. These structured entities are consolidated in terms of IFRS, these issued shares of the company are treated as treasury shares. Accordingly, the subscription value of these shares is deducted from equity attributable to the equity holders of the company until the shares are cancelled, disposed of or reissued.

     

1.26

Deferred tax

   

Deferred tax is provided in full using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between tax bases of the assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on the tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

A deferred tax asset is only recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised, unless specifically exempt.

Deferred tax liabilities arising on investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are recognised except where
the group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current income tax liabilities, and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

     

1.27

Financial liabilities

   

Financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value net of transaction costs. However, transaction costs in respect of financial liabilities classified as at fair value through profit or loss are expensed.

Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are presented in the income statement within other gains and losses.

Financial liabilities (excluding liabilities designated in a hedging relationship) that are not designated on initial recognition as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are measured at amortised cost. These consist of trade and other payables and interest-bearing borrowings.

The fair value of derivative liabilities is calculated as the difference between the contracted value and the value to maturity at the balance sheet date. The value to maturity of forward foreign exchange contracts is determined using quoted forward exchange rates at the balance sheet date. The value to maturity of commodity futures is determined by reference to quoted prices at the balance sheet date.

     

1.28

Employment benefit obligations

   

Pension obligations

The group provides retirement benefits to employees in the form of defined contribution plans. Certain benefits to some employees accrue with service and are therefore accounted for as a defined benefit plan. The assets of all retirement schemes are held separately from those of the group and are administered and controlled by trustees.

Contributions to defined contribution schemes are charged to profit or loss when incurred. The group has no legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current or prior periods.

For defined benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit actuarial valuation method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each reporting period.

For defined benefit retirement plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognised in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognised in profit or loss in the period of plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorised as follows:

  • Service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements)
  • Net interest expense or income
  • Remeasurement.

The group presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in profit or loss. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the group balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the group's defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.

Post-retirement medical aid benefits and retirement gratuities

Provisions for post-retirement medical aid benefits and gratuities payable on retirement are calculated on an actuarial basis, being present value of future liability, for services rendered to date. Actuarial gains or losses are recognised in the same manner as those of pension obligations.

Employee 14 costs

The cost of short-term employee benefits, including the expected cost of short-term accumulating compensated absences, is recognised in the income statement in the period in which the service is rendered and is not discounted.

The expected cost of profit-sharing and bonus payments is recognised as an expense when there is a legal or constructive obligation to make such payments as a result of past performance.

     

1.29

Shareholders for equity dividends

   

Dividends to equity holders are only recognised as a liability when approved by the board of directors and are included in the statement of changes in equity. Dividends tax in respect of such dividends is recognised as a liability when the dividends are recognised as a liability and are included in the tax charge in the income statement.

     

1.30

Provisions

   

Provisions are recognised when the group has a present legal or constructive obligation, as a result of past events, for which it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made for the amount of the obligation.

Provisions are measured as the expenditure required to settle the present obligation. Where the effect of discounting is material, provisions are measured at their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessment of the time value of money and the risks for which future cash flow estimates have not been adjusted.

     

INCOME STATEMENT

 

1.31

Revenue

   

Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the group or company, and when the amount of the revenue and the related costs can be reliably measured.

Revenue of the group comprises revenue from the sale of fabricated and semi-fabricated aluminium products, which comprise a metal component and a conversion margin. Revenue of the company comprises interest income and management and
agency fees.

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer. This occurs when the group entity has delivered products to the customer and the customer has accepted the products. The delivery of products and the transfer of risks are determined by the terms of sale, and specifically by the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Trade, where these are applicable. Revenue is recognised at the fair value of the consideration receivable net of returns, rebates and discounts, and after eliminating sales within the group.

Management and agency fees are recognised as the services are performed.

     

1.32

Borrowing costs

   

Borrowing costs include interest and other costs incurred in connection with the borrowing of funds.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time (usually more than six months) to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

     

1.33

Taxation

   

The tax expense for the period comprises current and deferred tax. Tax is recognised in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case the tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively. The charge for current tax is computed on the results for the year, as adjusted for income that is exempt and expenses that are not deductible, using tax rates and tax laws that are enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

     

1.34

Earnings per share

   

Earnings per share

The calculation of basic earnings per share is based on the earnings attributable to ordinary shareholders, divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the year.

The calculation of diluted earnings per share is based on the earnings attributable to ordinary shareholders, divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the year, plus the weighted average number of dilutive potential shares resulting from share options.

Headline earnings per share

Headline earnings per share is calculated using the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the year and is based on the earnings attributable to ordinary shareholders, after excluding those items as required by Circular 2/2015 issued by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA).

Normalised earnings per share

Normalised earnings per share is one of the measuring bases which the chief operating decision maker uses in assessing performance and in deciding how to allocate resources. The calculation of normalised earnings per share is based on headline earnings generated from the primary business operations of the group excluding abnormal or non-recurring gains and losses, divided by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the year. The presentation of normalised earnings is not an IFRS requirement and may not be directly comparable with the same or similar measures disclosed by other companies.

     

1.35

Share-based payments

   

The group's employee share incentive schemes are accounted for as equity-settled share-based payments. The fair value of the incentives at the grant date is expensed on a straight-line basis over the period during which the incentive vests.

Fair value is determined based on an estimate of the incentives that will vest and any non-market conditions, using the Monte Carlo Simulation, Black-Scholes and binomial tree valuation models, and these estimates are reviewed annually.

For those schemes where the group purchases shares in order to settle the benefit granted, any cost in excess of the fair value of the benefit granted is recognised in equity.

BEE transactions

BEE transactions where the Group receives or acquires goods or services as consideration for the issue of equity instruments of the Group are treated as share-based payment transactions.

BEE transactions where employees are involved are measured and accounted for on the same basis as share-based payments, as disclosed above.

Transactions in which share-based payments are made to parties other than employees are measured by reference to the fair value of equity instruments granted if no specific goods or services are received. Vesting of the equity instrument occurs immediately and an expense and related increase in equity is recognised on the date that the instrument is granted. No further measurement or adjustments are required as it is presumed that the BEE credentials are received upfront. Incremental costs that are directly associated with the BEE transaction are expensed immediately in the determination of profit or loss.

     

1.36

Interest income

   

Interest income is accrued on a time basis using the effective interest rate method.

     

1.37

Judgements, estimates and assumptions

   

The key judgements, assumptions and sources of estimation uncertainty at the balance sheet date that could have a significant risk of causing material adjustment to the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities within the next financial year are:

Useful lives and residual values of assets

Items of property, plant and equipment are depreciated over their useful lives taking into account residual values. The estimated useful lives and residual values are assessed annually taking into account technological innovation, product life cycles, maintenance programmes and projected disposal values.

Post-employment benefit obligations

Actuarial valuations of post-retirement benefit obligations are based on assumptions which include employee turnover, mortality rates, discount rate, expected long-term rate of return on retirement plan assets, health care costs, inflation rates and salary increments.

Share-based payment transactions

The critical estimates and assumptions used in the IFRS 2 calculations are disclosed in note 33 of the group financial statements.

Impairment of non-financial assets

The recoverable amounts of the assets (or cash-generating units to which they belong) disclosed in notes 3 to 5 of the group financial statements, and note 2 of the company financial statements, were estimated at period end in terms of IAS 36.

The critical estimates and assumptions used in the recoverable amount calculations in respect of the assets of the group are disclosed in note 20 of the group financial statements.

Investment in Isizinda Aluminium (Pty) Ltd (Isizinda)

The Group holds a 40% interest in Isizinda. Management have assessed the investment in Isizinda to represent control in terms of the requirements of IFRS 10. These requirements were assessed in conjunction with the substance of various contractual terms including those relating to the funding arrangements and operating activities of Isizinda.

This has been disclosed in note 11 of the group financial statements.

   

2.

OPERATING SEGMENT ANALYSIS

 

The group is organised into two major operating divisions, namely Hulamin Rolled Products and Hulamin Extrusions. The divisions, which offer different core products, are the basis on which the Group reports its primary segment information. The Hulamin Rolled Products segment, which comprises the Hulamin Rolled Products and Hulamin Containers businesses, manufactures and supplies fabricated and rolled semi-finished aluminium products. The Hulamin Extrusions segment manufactures and supplies extruded aluminium products. Both reportable segments are based and managed in South Africa.

 

In the current year, the Group acquired Isizinda Aluminium (Pty) Ltd. This business only supplies slab to Hulamin Rolled Products.
The activities of Isizinda Aluminium are integrated into the Hulamin Rolled Products segment. 

 
2015  2014 
 Hulamin
Rolled 
Products 
R'000 
Hulamin 
Extrusions 
R'000 
Group 
total 
R'000 
Hulamin 
Rolled 
Products 
R'000 
Hulamin 
Extrusions 
R'000 
Group 
total 
R'000 
Revenue 
Segment revenue  7 554 622  840 364  8 394 986  7 288 391  750 527  8 038 918 
Inter-segment revenue  –  –  –  –  –  – 
Revenue from external customers  7 554 622  840 364  8 394 986  7 288 391  750 527  8 038 918 
Earnings 
EBITDA*  414 084  30 057  444 141  599 226  60 762  659 988 
Depreciation and amortisation  (131 176) (17 485) (148 661) (105 039) (13 221) (118 260)
Impairment reversal  –  –  –  43 405  –  43 405 
Operating profit  282 908  12 572  295 480  537 592  47 541  585 133 
Interest received  2 085  –  2 085  2 453  –  2 453 
Interest paid  (67 520) (1 057) (68 577) (45 249) (2 911) (48 160)
Profit before tax  217 473  11 515  228 988  494 796  44 630  539 426 
Taxation  (61 848) (3 426) (65 274) (141 612) (12 886) (154 498)
Net profit for the year  155 625  8 089  163 714  353 184  31 744  384 928 
Headline earnings 
Net profit for the year  155 625  8 089  163 714  31 744  384 928 
Loss/(profit) on disposal of property, plant and equipment  10 538  –  10 538  6 518  (20) 6 498 
Impairment reversal  –  –  –  (43 405) –  (43 405)
Bargain purchase gain  (51 868) –  (51 868) –  –  – 
Tax effect  (3 123) –  (3 123) 10 328  10 334 
111 172  8 089  119 261  326 625  31 730  358 355 
Normalised earnings 
Headline earnings  111 172  8 089  119 261  326 625  31 730  358 355 
Adjusted for (net of tax): 
Share-based payment costs on 2015 BEE transaction  18 165  1 835  20 000  –  –  – 
Transaction costs  5 455  –  5 455  7 450  –  7 450 
Post-retirement medical aid past service costs adjustments  4 857  –  4 857  (11 272) –  (11 272)
Equity-settled share-based payment: Isizinda  27 224  –  27 224  –  –  – 
166 873  9 924  176 797  322 803  31 730  354 533 
Headline earnings per share: 
– Basic (cents) 37  112 
– Diluted (cents) 36  110 
Normalised earnings per share: 
– Basic (cents) 55  111 
– Diluted (cents) 54  109 
Total assets  6 335 986  320 554  6 656 540  5 897 340  372 038  6 269 378 
Total liabilities  2 754 987  47 036  2 802 023  2 339 871  95 690  2 435 561 
Other disclosures 
Additions to property, plant and equipment and intangible assets  570 699  34 303  605 002  314 178  21 386  335 564 
* Earnings before interest, taxation, depreciation, amortisation and impairment of property, plant and intangible assets. 
   
 
 2015 
R'000 
2014 
R'000 
Analysis of revenue by product market 
Automotive and transport  1 281 436  1 089 810 
Building and construction  170 810  180 672 
General engineering  3 410 226  3 679 343 
Packaging  3 532 514  3 089 093 
8 394 986  8 038 918 
Geographical analysis of revenue 
South Africa  3 781 298  2 959 537 
North America  2 021 928  1 982 260 
Europe  1 325 784  1 622 740 
Asia  546 815  658 242 
Middle East  198 208  455 307 
Australasia  215 217  58 061 
South America  297 205  278 278 
Rest of Africa  8 531  24 493 
8 394 986  8 038 918 
 

All non-current assets of the group are located in, or are attributable to, operations in South Africa.

The Hulamin Rolled Products segment includes revenues of R1 239 million (2014: R823 283 000) which arose from sales to the group's largest customer.

   
  Total 
R'000 
Land and 
buildings 
R'000 
Plant and 
machinery 
R'000 
Vehicles, 
equipment 
and other 
R'000 
Capital 
works under 
construction 
R'000 

3.

PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 

2015 
At cost 
Balance at beginning of year  6 955 288  926 123  5 609 852  163 064  256 249 
Additions  472 358  6 610  45 220  3 320  417 208 
Assets acquired in business combination  117 164  68 364  48 800  –  – 
Borrowing costs capitalised  20 451  2 102  9 847  –  8 502 
Capitalised from capital works under construction  –  38 187  327 375  22 229  (387 791)
Transfers  –  (43) (1 034) 1 077  – 
Disposals  (104 358) –  (103 764) (594) – 
Balance at end of year  7 460 903  1 041 343  5 936 296  189 096  294 168 
Accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 
Balance at beginning of year  4 258 140  509 578  3 610 027  138 535  – 
Charge for the year (note 19) 140 321  12 996  117 295  10 030  – 
Disposals  (104 358) –  (103 764) (594) – 
Balance at end of year  4 294 103  522 574  3 623 558  147 971  – 
Carrying value at 31 December 2015  3 166 800  518 769  2 312 738  41 125  294 168 
2014 
At cost 
Balance at beginning of year  6 791 826  924 329  5 653 492  147 667  66 338 
Additions  305 572  519  46 042  –  259 011 
Borrowing costs capitalised  4 919  –  –  –  4 919 
Capitalised from capital works under construction  –  1 308  57 752  14 959  (74 019)
Transfers  –  –  (732) 732  – 
Disposals  (59 139) (33) (58 812) (294) – 
Reclassification to asset held for sale  (87 890) –  (87 890) –  – 
Balance at end of year  6 955 288  926 123  5 609 852  163 064  256 249 
Accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 
Balance at beginning of year  4 276 701  508 861  3 610 334  123 556  33 950 
Charge for the year (note 19) 109 952  16 844  85 624  7 484  – 
Transfers  –  (16 107) 42 375  7 682  (33 950)
Disposals  (52 435) (20) (52 228) (187) – 
Impairment reversal (note 20) (43 405) –  (43 405) –  – 
Reclassification to asset held for sale  (32 673) –  (32 673) –  – 
Balance at end of year  4 258 140  509 578  3 610 027  138 535  – 
Carrying value at 31 December 2014  2 697 148  416 545  1 999 825  24 529  256 249 

The weighted average interest rate used for borrowing costs capitalised is 8,23% (2014: 7,68%). 

A register of land and buildings is available for inspection at the company's registered office.  

The group has applied the following methods and rates as at the date of acquisition of each asset during the current and prior years. The useful lives, and accordingly the depreciation rates, are re-evaluated on an annual basis: 

Buildings  Straight line 30 to 50 years 
Plant and machinery  Straight line  4 to 50 years 
Vehicles  Straight line  4 to 10 years 
Equipment  Straight line  5 to 20 years 
Furniture  Straight line  5 to 10 years 

Moveable items with a carrying value of R39 983 000 (2014: R23 060 000) and land and buildings with a carrying value of R208 024 000 (2014: not encumbered) are encumbered as security for borrowing facilities (notes 13 and 17). 

Total depreciation is included in cost of sales on the Income Statement.

    
 2015 
R'000 
2014 
R'000 

4.

INTANGIBLE ASSETS 

Software costs – internally generated and capitalised 
At beginning of year  92 128  84 288 
Additions  8 085  7 840 
At end of year  100 213  92 128 
Accumulated amortisation 
At beginning of year  58 784  54 018 
Charge for the year (note 19) 5 342  4 766 
At end of year  64 126  58 784 
Carrying value at end of year  36 087  33 344 
Software costs – other external 
At beginning of year  51 559  29 407 
Additions  7 395  22 152 
At end of year  58 954  51 559 
Accumulated amortisation 
    At beginning of year  25 126  21 584 
Charge for the year (note 19) 2 998  3 542 
At end of year  28 124  25 126 
Carrying value at end of year  30 830  26 433 
Total software costs 
Cost  159 167  143 687 
Accumulated amortisation  (92 250) (83 910)
Carrying value at end of year  66 917  59 777 
 

Intangible assets are amortised over their useful lives on the straight-line basis and the following rates were applied during the year: 

   
 
Internally generated 3 to 15 years
Other external 3 to 10 years 
   
 

The group does not undertake primary research activities and there was no development expenditure incurred in the current and prior years. 

Total amortisation is included in cost of sales on the Income Statement.

   

5.

ASSET HELD FOR SALE 

 

In December 2014, management approved a plan to sell one of its rolling mills. Accordingly, it was presented as an asset held for sale. 

The rolling mill was stated at carrying value which did not exceed its fair value less cost to sell (in accordance with IFRS 5) and comprised the following:

Property, plant and machinery  –  55 217 

The rolling mill was sold during 2015 and has therefore been derecognised. 

 2015 
R'000 
2014 
R'000 

6.

DEFERRED TAX ASSET 

At beginning of year  25 450  27 815 
Tax (charged)/credited directly to equity  (14) 394 
Income statement 
Current year charge  (4 089) (3 989)
Prior year (charge)/credit  (313) 801 
Deferred tax (charge)/credit in other comprehensive income  (774) 429 
At end of year  20 260  25 450 
Analysis of deferred tax asset 
Fixed assets  (6 734) (2 625)
Retirement benefit obligations and other provisions  25 747  27 107 
Other  1 247  968 
20 260  25 450 
Deferred tax asset to be recovered after more than 12 months  14 231  24 063 
Deferred tax asset to be recovered within 12 months  6 029  1 387 
20 260  25 450 
       

7.

INVENTORIES 

Raw materials  379 550  530 857 
Work-in-progress  409 019  514 785 
Finished goods  774 345  751 600 
Consumable stores  221 891  161 692 
1 784 805  1 958 934 

Inventories with a carrying value of R1 635 million (2014: R1 781 million) are encumbered as security for borrowing facilities (note 17). 

Certain items of inventory were written down (note 19) to net realisable value.

  
 2015 
R'000 
2014 
R'000 

8.

TRADE AND OTHER RECEIVABLES 

Financial assets  1 245 500  935 977 
Trade receivables  1 205 717  937 403 
Less: Provision for impairment of receivables  (4 752) (6 222)
1 200 965  931 181 
Sundry receivables  44 535  4 796 
Non-financial assets  138 890  101 932 
Prepayments  40 591  33 754 
Value-added taxation receivable  98 299  68 178 
 
1 384 390  1 037 909 
As at 31 December, the ageing analysis of trade and sundry receivables, which constitute financial assets, is as follows: 
Receivables that are neither overdue nor impaired  1 127 469  750 062 
Receivables overdue but not impaired  118 031  185 915 
Overdue by less than 60 days  106 526  155 543 
Overdue by more than 60 days  11 505  30 372 
 
Total receivables, net of provision for impairment  1 245 500  935 977 
One debtor comprises 27% (2014: 22%) of trade receivables. There is no other significant concentration of risk related to particular customer or industry segments. As at 31 December, the exposure of the group to trade receivables, neither overdue nor impaired, in local and overseas markets, and the extent to which these are subject to credit insurance cover is as follows: 
Local trade receivables  244 700  220 943 
– Balance subject to credit insurance(%) 95  98 
Export trade receivables  826 005  524 323 
– Balance subject to credit insurance (%) 100  100 
1 070 705  745 266 

Trade receivables covered by credit insurance are subject to a 10% excess. 

Trade and sundry receivables that are impaired are provided for in full. No collateral is held on these receivables. The movement in the provision for impairment is as follows:

At 1 January  6 222  7 835 
Receivables written off during the year as uncollectible  (1 892) (3 152)
Net creation during the year  422  1 539 
At 31 December  4 752  6 222 

Trade and other receivables with a carrying value of R1 123 million (2014: R854 231 000) have been ceded as security for borrowing facilities (note 17). 

   2015 
Foreign 
amount 
'000 
2015 
Rand 
amount 
R'000 
2014 
Rand 
amount 
R'000 
The group had the following uncovered export trade debtors at the period end: 
Euro  333  5 634  3 315 
US Dollar  595  9 256  4 914 
14 890  8 229 
 
 2015 

R'000 

2014 

R'000 

9.

DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS 

Foreign currency management – firm commitments and probable forecast sales (note 9.1) (183 088) (52 152)
Foreign currency management – trade debtors, creditors and import orders (note 9.2) (44 233) (12 572)
Commodity price management (note 9.3) 128  38 380 
(227 193) (26 344)
Grouped as: 
Financial assets  8 457  44 175 
Financial liabilities  (235 650) (70 519)
(227 193) (26 344)

The credit quality of all derivative financial assets is sound and there have been no defaults in the past. None are overdue or impaired and the group does not hold collateral on derivatives. The group's maximum exposure to counterparty credit risk on derivative assets at 31 December 2015 is made up of exposure on commodity futures and amounted to R128 000 (2014: R38 380 000). 

The fair value of the financial instruments is determined by applying the methods disclosed in notes 1.20 and 1.27

The fair value measurement classification of the above financial instruments is level 2 (observable inputs) in accordance with the fair value hierarchy prescribed by IFRS 13. Key inputs used in the determination of fair value relate to London Metal Exchange (LME) aluminium prices and currency exchange rates. 

The group's financial risk management strategy is discussed in note 35.

 

9.1

Foreign currency management – firm commitments and probable forecast sales  

The following forward foreign exchange contracts (FECs) on hand at period end are economic hedges of firm commitments and probable forecast sales and were designated as hedging instruments in terms of hedge accounting. 

2015  2014 
Foreign
amount
 '000 
Rand
amount
R'000 
Fair value
asset/
(liability)
R'000 
Foreign
amount
'000 
Rand
amount
R'000 
Fair value
asset
(liability)
R'000 
Forward purchases 
US Dollar (note 9.1.1) 4 581  66 315  7 475  2 933  33 679  (148)
66 315  7 475  33 679  (148)
Forward sales 
Euro (note 9.1.1) (3 395) (53 260) (6 738) (1 936) (28 019) 741 
Pound Sterling (note 9.1.1) (18) (392) (35) (124) (2 266) 19 
US Dollar (note 9.1.2) (100 659) (1 408 505) (183 790) (103 030) (1 158 354) (52 764)
(1 462 157) (190 563) (1 188 639) (52 004)
Net total  (1 395 842) (183 088) (1 154 960) (52 152)
Maturing in: 
2015  –  –  (1 154 960) (52 152)
2016  (1 395 842) (183 088) –  – 
(1 395 842) (183 088) (1 154 960) (52 152)
Cash flow hedges (note 9.1.2) (1 408 505) (183 790) (1 158 354) (52 764)
Fair value hedges (note 9.1.1) 12 663  702  3 394  612 
(1 395 842) (183 088) (1 154 960) (52 152)
Grouped as: 
Financial assets  –  196 
Financial liabilities  (183 088) (52 348)
(183 088) (52 152)
    

9.1.1

Fair value hedges

The group enters into FECs to hedge Euro, Pound Sterling and US Dollar-denominated customer orders (firm commitments). These FECs are hedge accounted and are designated as fair value hedges, accounted for in accordance with accounting policy note 1.7

9.1.2

Cash flow hedges 

The group enters into FECs to hedge US Dollar exposure of the metal component of probable forecast sales. These FECs are hedge accounted and are designated as cash flow hedges, accounted for in accordance with accounting policy note 1.7. When assessing the effectiveness of the hedges during hedge effectiveness testing, the group compares the fair value of the total sales transaction to the fair value of the FECs plus the fair value of futures discussed in note 9.3

    
 

9.2

Foreign currency management – trade debtors, creditors and import orders

The following forward foreign exchange contracts have been entered into to cover foreign currency risk, but were not designated as hedging instruments for accounting purposes at the period end: 

2015  2014 
Foreign 
amount 
'000 
Rand 
amount 
R'000 
Fair value 
asset/ 
(liability) 
R'000 
Foreign 
amount 
'000 
Rand 
amount 
R'000 
Fair value 
asset/ 
(liability) 
R'000 
Forward purchases 
Euro  2 662  42 396  3 580  6 317  94 797  (4 497)
Pound Sterling  1 825  41 376  745  4 100  47 076  1 452 
US Dollar  5 213  75 470  4 906  1 092  20 752  (787)
159 242  9 231  162 625  (3 832)
Forward sales 
Euro  (10 146) (159 164) (11 941) (7 108) (102 854) 2 696 
Pound Sterling  (502) (10 889) (686) (426) (7 766)
US Dollar  (35 940) (523 752) (40 837) (41 142) (467 732) (11 443)
(693 805) (53 464) (578 352) (8 740)
Net total  (534 563) (44 233) (415 727) (12 572)
Maturing in: 
2015  –  –  (415 727) (12 572)
2016  (534 563) (44 233) –  – 
(534 563) (44 233) (415 727) (12 572)
Grouped as: 
Financial assets  –  47 
Financial liabilities  (44 233) (12 619)
(44 233) (12 572)
   
 

9.3

Commodity price management

The following futures contracts were designated as hedging instruments at the period end:  

     2015 2014
     Tons Contracted value
R'000 
Fair value
asset/ (liability)
R'000 
Tons Contracted value
R'000 
Fair value
asset/ (liability)
R'000 
Net aluminium futures purchases/(sales) maturing in: 
2015  –  –  –  (17 600) (415 178) 38 380 
2016  17 350  406 463  128  –  –  – 
17 350  406 463  128  (17 600) (415 178) 38 380 
Grouped as: 
Financial assets  8 457  43 932 
Financial liabilities  (8 329) (5 552)
128  38 380 
Cash flow hedges (note 9.3.1) 3 693  48 295 
Fair value hedges (note 9.3.2) (3 565) (9 915)
128  38 380 
      

9.3.1 

Cash flow hedges 

The group enters into London Metal Exchange (LME) futures to hedge the metal price exposure on probable forecast sales. These LME futures are hedge accounted and are designated as cash flow hedges, accounted for in accordance with accounting policy note 1.7. When assessing the effectiveness of the hedges during hedge effectiveness testing, the group compares the fair value of the total sales transaction to the fair value of the LME futures plus the fair value of FECs discussed in note 9.1

    

9.3.2 

Fair value hedges 

The group enters into London Metal Exchange (LME) futures to hedge the metal price exposure on firm commitments with customers. These LME futures are hedge accounted and are designated as fair value hedges, accounted for in accordance with accounting policy note 1.7

 2015 
R'000 
2014 
R'000 

10.

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS 

Bank balances  69 691  98 407 
Cash on hand  467  699 
Nedbank call deposit  –  150 000 
70 158  249 106 
Effective interest rates (%) 4,50  4,80 
Included in bank balances are the following foreign currency denominated accounts: 
Euro  29  6 737 
Pound Sterling  – 
US Dollar  889  14 699 
918  21 437 

Bank balances with a carrying value of R38 119 000 (2014: R246 124 000) have been ceded as security for borrowing facilities (note 17).